ICAO is helping to improve connectivity in different areas through market access, consumer protection, etc. The aim is, for example, to facilitate international agreements aimed at liberalizing current restrictions through policy directions and guidelines. Nevertheless, the Russian ants seem to have worked – if they advanced Trump`s alleged decision on the open-ski treaty. The withdrawal of the United States from the agreement would place the blame on a non-Washington-compliant Moscow, stoke anti-Americanism and perhaps call for a U.S. military withdrawal from Europe, at a time when a party within the German government coalition is questioning the presence of U.S. nuclear weapons on the continent. Even if the Europeans stick to the treaty, the withdrawal of the United States from the agreement would leave little interest for the Kremlin to remain within it, let alone return to its terms. Indeed, Moscow could renounce the unwanted obligations of the treaty while avoiding blaming it. Trump would prove once again that he is willing to give diplomatic victories to Russian President Vladimir Putin (a trend that will remain mysterious as long as Republicans control the Senate). Many European countries have tried to salvage the agreement by actively addressing compliance issues in the Open Skies Advisory Committee.
Unfortunately, the effort was a half-hearted exercise in the backroom diplomacy. The Europeans have not sought wider support for the treaty. Indeed, Russia`s misuse of the agreement has never led to public criticism or a campaign to urge it to abide by it. This seems to have led some members of the Washington security establishment to believe that the treaty was of little value. Because it`s hard to change Trump`s mind on a particular issue, U.S. officials may have simply decided to choose their battles by focusing instead on other important topics. The overly complex framework conditions of bilateral agreements have not only significantly increased business costs, but have limited choice and no competition and have created barriers to continued growth in air traffic. Since the early 1990s, states have begun to remove regulatory barriers, negotiate more liberal bilateral and multilateral agreements, including “open skies” agreements, which have allowed the industry to do business in more favourable operating environments in order to expand into new markets.