A “secondary agreement” reached in August 1993 on the application of existing domestic labour law, the North American Convention on Labour Cooperation (NAALC) , was severely restricted. With regard to health and safety standards and child labour law, it excluded collective bargaining issues, and its “control teeth” were only accessible at the end of a “long and painful” dispute.  The obligations to enforce existing labour law have also raised questions of democratic practice.  The Canadian anti-NAFTA coalition Pro-Canada Network suggested that guarantees of minimum standards in the absence of “extensive democratic reforms in the [Mexican] courts, unions and government” would be of no use.  However, subsequent evaluations indicated that NAALC`s principles and complaint mechanisms “created a new space for princes to form coalitions and take concrete steps to articulate the challenges of the status quo and promote the interests of workers.”  NAFTA has increased Mexican agricultural exports to the United States, which have tripled since the implementation of the pact. Hundreds of thousands of jobs in the automotive industry have also been created in the country and most studies [PDF] have found that the agreement has increased productivity and reduced consumer prices in Mexico. Since the mid-1960s, production sites known as Maquiladoras have been a regular feature of Mexico`s border towns, particularly along the Texas and New Mexico borders. U.S. companies such as John Deere, Zenith, Mattel and Xerox operate the majority of the more than 3,600 maquiladoras in northern Mexico. Billions of dollars worth of products, from televisions to clothing to auto parts – are assembled in Maquiladoras and then sent back to the United States tax-free to sell to U.S. consumers.
The United States had already concluded a free trade agreement with Canada in 1988, but the addition of a less developed country such as Mexico was unprecedented. Opponents of NAFTA have taken up wage differences with Mexico, which had only 30 percent of U.S. per capita income. U.S. presidential candidate Ross Perot said in 1992 that trade liberalization would cause a “huge noise” of American jobs fleeing the border. Supporters such as Presidents Bush and Clinton responded that the agreement would create hundreds of thousands of new jobs a year, while Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari saw it as a chance to modernize Mexico`s economy so that it “exports goods, not people.” The African Economic Community (AEC) is an Organization of the African Union. Signed in 1991 and implemented in 1994, it provides for the gradual integration of regional economic agreements. Several regional agreements serve as pillars of the AEC:Wikipedia, s.v.
“African Economic Community”, consulted on 30 April 2011, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Economic_Community. Under the agreement, Canada agreed to provide increased access to its dairy market and obtained several concessions in exchange. The USMCA will retain Chapter 19, which Canada relies on to protect it from U.S. trade assistance. It has also avoided a proposed five-year expiration clause, but uses a 16-year delay with a review after six years. Shortly after his election, U.S. President Donald Trump said he would begin renegotiating NAFTA terms to resolve trade issues for which he campaigned. The heads of state and government of Canada and Mexico have expressed their willingness to cooperate with the Trump administration.  Although he vaguely formulated the precise terms he wants in a renegotiated NAFTA, Trump has threatened to withdraw from it if negotiations fail.  One of the most affected agricultural sectors was the meat industry.
In 2004, Mexico moved from a small player in the U.S. export market to the second largest importer of U.S. agricultural products, and NAFTA may have been an important catalyst for this change. Free trade removed the barriers to business between the two countries, allowing Mexico to offer a market